Group 23 EMS 2 Design and function
Unit injector
The unit injectors are located under the valve cover,
mounted in the cylinder head.
The engine’s fuel requirement is analyzed up to 100
times per second (depending on engine rpm). The
amount of fuel injected into the engine and the injec-
tion timing are electronically controlled via the unit in-
jector’s solenoid controlled fuel valves. This means
that the engine always receives the correct volume of
fuel in all operating conditions, which offers lower fuel
consumption, minimal exhaust emissions etc.
The alternator is belt driven and is located at the left
front of the engine.
The alternator’s voltage regulator is equipped with a
sensor system. The sensor system compares the
charging voltage between the alternator’s B+ and B-
terminals, with the voltage between the battery’s posi-
tive and negative poles. The voltage regulator then
compensates the voltage drop in the cables between
the alternator and battery by increasing the charging
voltage at the alternator, if necessary.
The starter is mounted on the flywheel housing on the
engine’s right side.
During starting, a gear on the starter rotor shaft is
moved axially so that it engages with the ring gear on
the engine’s flywheel. The axial movement as well as
the activation of the starter is controlled by a solenoid
on the starter motor.
The starter solenoid in turn is connected via the start-
er relay, which is activated when the starter key is
turned to position III/the starter button is pressed.

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